Preserving the planet’s trees, woodlands and forests is an imperative, essential for the future survival of the human race and something we absolutely have to get a grip on. As a result, buying wood has become quite a complex matter.
If you don’t want to support illegal logging or encourage deforestation, you need to be aware of how to buy sustainable wood. We thought it’d be useful to take a look at the subject to help you avoid buying the ‘wrong’ stuff.
What is sustainable wood?
Sustainable wood comes from sustainably managed forests. It’s renewable because the forest stewards manage the landscape to prevent damage to eco-systems, watersheds, wildlife and the trees themselves, taking a long term rather than short term view of the resource.
Sustainability in this context means the forest should still be there for your grandchildren and great grand-kids, and be able to soak up carbon emissions and keep our air clean for generations to come, as well as a being haven for wildlife.
Wood from unsustainable sources, on the other hand, is chopped down without a second thought leaving bare areas that, unless they’re carefully treated, never really recover to their former glory. The effects are clear – illegal logging leads to wholesale destruction.
Why bother buying sustainable wood?
Brazilian Amazon deforestation might not seem very relevant. It happens thousands of miles from home, exotic and remote. You might not realise the harm that buying new Mahogany flooring or Teak garden furniture does. But buying unsustainable wood has a profound effect on the areas where it’s harvested, including human rights abuses, hunting of endangered species, threatening the lifestyles and even the lives of indigenous tribes, as well as making countless rare and threatened creatures homeless.
Just 8% of the world’s forest is properly protected from destruction. The timber industry is insatiable, as is our demand for wood. And much of the time it’s harvested unsustainably despite the best efforts of conservationists, governments and lawmakers. Sadly, money often speaks louder than common sense and today is often more important than the future. In Malaysia, for example, timber production demands more trees than there are in existence. In some areas there are no trees left and wood is being smuggled in from Indonesia to meet demand.
In a nutshell, buying sustainable wood is one way you can support the future of the planet’s forests and, at the same time, protect the future of our children.
Which woods are most sustainable?
Timber is usually classified as either hardwood, from broad leafed trees, such as Beech and Oak, or softwood from conifers like Pine and Fir. Simply because they’re replaceable, fast-growing species like Pine trees tend to be more sustainable than slow-growing trees like Oak. Oak forests have to be managed carefully to make them sustainable, grown and harvested in the right way, but it can be done.
The EU has introduced legal measures to protect its woodlands and forests, and these days more trees are planted than felled. It’s great news for the future, with EU forests actually growing instead of diminishing. Because the law places a minimum requirement on replacing harvested trees as well as limiting annual harvests, buying European wood is usually a safe choice.
Wood sourced from Asia, Africa, South America and even the USA and Canada comes with fewer guarantees. These sources can be made sustainable through hard work, determination and dedication to the environmental cause. Several international organisations are involved in assessing forests across these regions. But they have a long way to go.
Wood is big money, forest clearance is big money, illegal logging is big money. If you’re buying non-EU wood, take care not to buy wood from an endangered tree species. You’ll find an up to date list of threatened trees on the United Nations website and also on the Friends of the Earth website.
Exotic woods to avoid
All these wood types are particularly endangered and should be avoided:
Burmese Teak, and Teak in general
How to identify sustainable wood – The FSC
Always look for official certification of the wood’s sustainable source, even if it says it’s from the EU. There have been questions about wood from some EU sources, for example illegal logging has long been suspected in Russian and Siberian forests.
The Forest Stewardship Council – FSC is an independent, non-profit organisation promoting responsible management of the world’s forests. Their certification system provides internationally recognised standard-setting and trademark assurance to anyone, business or individual, who is interested in supporting responsible forestry.
The FSC logo is something you can rely on, and there’s also the PEFC logo, a sign that the Programme for the Endorsement of Forestry Certification has been involved. Together they help guarantee wood comes from sustainable sources, is replaced after harvesting, and is taken without harming the environment and neighbouring ecosystems.
5 sustainable woods… but only when you buy wisely!
While you can’t buy FSC certified Bamboo, the wood can be sustainable. It depends on its origin. Bamboo grows across vast areas of the earth in Asia, sub-Saharan Africa, north Australia and the Americas. It’s amazingly light and strong and grows like mad, so can be naturally sustainable. It’s used for furniture and floors, scaffolding, fences, bridges and even bricks. With about 1500 species it’s very versatile, and can be harvested in 3-5 years compared with 10-20 years for most softwoods.
On the other hand you need to source it carefully. A billion people depend on Bamboo for their living and if it’s harvested unwisely they suffer. As do the wild creatures that also depend on it, including giant pandas and west African mountain gorillas, whose favourite type of Bamboo is already under threat. How do you know it’s sustainable? Check the International Network for Bamboo and Rattan website.
Most newly-harvested Oak originates in Britain, Europe, the USA and Australia, used for a wide range of joinery, furniture and wood flooring projects. Take care buying oak from Poland, Russia and the Ukraine – all are linked with illegal logging and the destruction of ancient forests. French Oak is also poorly regulated and Oak from Estonia may even be illegal. Oak forests in Spain and Portugal are still in need of much better management, too.
Keep your eyes open for FSC Oak and make the best use of reclaimed and recycled Oak wherever possible.
Usually from Burma and Africa, Teak is used in building as well as furniture. It’s common enough – many people’s garden furniture is made from Teak – but it’s a challenge to find environmentally-sound Teak. Burma still exports Teak illegally, harvested from ancient forests, and the alternative, African Teak, is so scarce these days it’s not far off the endangered list.
FSC Teak is your best bet, but good substitutes include FSC Favinha, Guariuba and Tatajuba woods.
Mahogany originates from Brazil, Asia and Africa, and is commonly used for garden furniture and in building. Asia is home to more than 70 species of Mahogany, more than 50% of which are either endangered or critically endangered. Brazilian Mahogany is also vulnerable and at least five species of African Mahogany are either endangered or vulnerable.
There isn’t an alternative to Asian Mahogany but FSC Mahogany, Andiroba and Jatoba are all good alternatives to African and Brazilian Mahogany.
Usually from Europe and North America, good old Douglas Fir is used in building, for panelling and to make furniture. Sustainable Douglas Fir from Europe comes from well-managed plantations but North American imports are usually from temperate coastal rainforests where irresponsible logging is rife, despite them being some of the planet’s biggest intact rainforests. Canada is also engaged in the unethical logging of the Great Bear Rainforest.